Beasts to Craft: BioCodicology as a new approach to the study of parchment manuscripts (B2C)(2018-2023)
ERC Advanced Grant Project Lead Prof. Dr. Matthew Collins University YorkThe intention of Beasts to Craft (B2C) is to document the biological and craft records in parchment in order to reveal the entangled histories of animal improvement and parchment production in Europe from 500-1900 AD. B2C will lay the foundations for a new approach to the the study of parchment manuscripts —biocodicology— which draws evidence from the overlooked first stages in production, the raising of livestock and the preparation of the skins.
The Origin of the Glagolitic-Old Church Slavonic Manuscripts - An Interdisciplinary Investigation Accompanied by Editions (Sinai III)(2017-2020)
WFW Project Lead University ViennaSinai III is a multi-, inter- and transdisciplinary pilot-project in which philologists, computer vision scientists, chemists and physicists, microbiologists and conservators will work together to illuminate the history of some of the oldest Slavic manuscripts and palimpsests, prepare editions of hitherto unpublished texts and thereby improve the methods and techniques for the analysis, conservation and preservation of written cultural heritage. Several complex results are to be expected:
- Insights in the material and cultural history of the early Slavs.
- Editions of highly important texts of the 10th-11th c.
- Further developments of computer vision-, spectroscopic and DNA-methods of cultural heritage investigation.
- Insights in the make-up of Glagolitic manuscripts and the preparation of Glagolitic palimpsests.
Nanotechnological Restoration of Cultural Assets (NanoKult)(2016-2017)
PRIZE Project Lead University GrazA considerable part of our written and graphic cultural heritage from the period between 1840 and 1960 encompasses various documents (books, writings, scriptures, contracts, etc.) and innumerable pieces of art which have one feature in common: they are printed or painted on paper. Notably, paper of the quality produced during that time gets destroyed/degraded due to the generation of acid originating from the degradation process of the paper of this time; this degradation is caused by the production technique used which applied alum as paper auxiliary. As a consequence, the concerned documents literally decay, causing an enormous threat for libraries and archives all over the world. This problem becomes specifically evident when one takes into account that a myriad of these documents and artwork are unique copies with inestimable value for society and science. Given that not a single currently applied technique for paper mass deacidification delivers satisfying results in practice and following the conclusions of a survey of professional conservator-restorers about the urgent need to implement efficient mass deacidification techniques to preserve cultural heritage on paper, rapid action is needed in this area. In this context, a new prototype process will be developed by an interdisciplinary team from University of Graz and University of Continuing Education Krems. This highly innovative mass deacidification process involves development of alkaline nanoparticles as powerful deacidification components; these components will be functionalized with sophisticated cellulose derivatives which display excellent compatibility with paper and even strengthen paper´s rigidity and firmness. For technological simplification, this process, based on functionalized alkaline core-shell nanoparticles, will be operated in only one stage. The major technological breakthrough of this new approach lies in the possibility to treat not only staples of single sheets of paper, but also whole staples of complete books. This way, the books get additionally furnished with a deposit of coated nanoparticles in their interior; this deposit acts as an alkaline reserve which neutralizes newly generated acid in situ. In addition, it has been demonstrated that this unprecedented method benefits the mechanical properties of the treated paper by improving its rigidity by 60% to 70%. Furthermore, the process purifies the materials internally and, due to the antimicrobial properties of the functionalized nanoparticles, prevents their spoilage by cellulose-degrading bacteria or fungi, another well-known factor strongly contributing to paper disintegration. Finally, our pre-experiments indicate that no deterioration of printing ink or typography have to be expected. In the framework of the project, we will proceed by scaling up these fascinating features of our novel approach for mass deacidification to the prototype level.
AFFANDI IVSustainable Hygiene Concept as a mandatory conservation aspect for people, paintings on paper and drawings and the buildings of Museum Affandi (2018)
Asea Uninet with Technical University ViennaThe interrelation of restoration and preservation of the art and architecture of the Museum Affandi in Yogyakarta has been topic of two preliminary research projects within the frame of the ASEA Uninet. After the documentation of the buildings and the art work on paper the concepts of short and long-term measures have been outlined and are under development. Still some particularities have not been studied in detail so far. One of those is the threat by pests which can harm both the art as well as the architecture the Museum Affandi. Several biological hazards were identified: rodents, termites, moulds. Whereas there are a number of measures used to reduce or even prevent the threats most of them are also dangerous for humans. Brief information on traditional less harmful measures could be gathered with the frame of the preliminary projects at the Museum Affandi, but there are no comprehensive systematic surveys about traditional Indonesian available so far. Still, there is a growing literature on traditional plant disinfection in Asia and South America, many of those based on traditional knowledge. (Before they are gone expanded: Capturing traditional textile presentation knowledge in Southeast Asia and Latin America, Julia M Brennan presented at ICOM CC Copenhagen 2017; Mould on Books and Graphic Arts - A Report on Latest Research Results, Boudalis etc al ed. Berger Horn, 2016; Traditional Preventive Conservation of Paper in India, Patil Ashish and Singh Neelam in ERC Newsletter 1/2015 pp. 2-7, etc.) Even if the problem is the same in many places approaches differ and are very much depending on local environment, local plants and the species of the pests. Whereas those studies provide approaches to the interdisciplinary problems that have to be addressed for the special circumstances of a museum a number of questions are not answered in a way that they could be implemented for the particular needs of the Museum Affandi: details on herbal extracts, particular hygiene measures or construction techniques, choice of material to store and display works of art or other precious items and protect them against moulds and rodents, particular choice of place for durable buildings, etc. In this way there are a number of preservation measures used at the Museum Affandi which could be harmful for visitors and in particular for the staff (as they are spending a number of hours a day in the buildings). Still the methods are used with a focus on the preservation of the artwork. For the integrated approach that will be used for the upcoming restoration works these questions will be of interest, especially regarding the concepts for the long term monitoring and the facility management for both art and architecture of the Museum Affandi. The project should
- investigate written and oral tradition on disinfection for humans and their valuable items in Indonesia
- collect information on what is used in modern museums, libraries and archives in Indonesia
- identify possible best practice models for Indonesia
- test if applications used for artwork can be used for architecture and vice versa
- identify whether any of these methods could be employed for the
benefit of European museums and heritage items.
With the proposed project eco-friendly and sustainable solutions for
the control biological hazards in tropical conditions will be outlined.
To outline long-term preservation measures in this field for the Museum
Affandi, will not only safeguard Affandi’s art and architecture, but
will provide benefit for, especially the Indonesian, cultural heritage
AFFANDI VThe Influence of Daylight and natural airflow in the architecture of the museum Affandi, Yogyakarta (2018)Asea Uninet with Technical University ViennaRisk assessment and sustainable protection of cultural Heritage in Changing environment
AFFANDI IIITraditional Architecture and contemporary Art – The Estate of Kartika Affandi(2017)Asea Uninet with Technical University ViennaKartika Affandi is one of the most important contemporary artists in Indonesia. Keeping up the legacy of her father Affandi she inherited not only his talent but also an interest in architecture. Whereas Affandi designed the Museum in Yogyakarta as a place to host his art and this of his family in a very particular and unique architecture, Kartika created a space for her work of art hosted in a lavish garden inside of typical traditional buildings of central Java that she collected over the last years. The collection of buildings and art is a unique place where Kartika not only created a place for art but also a place where art is created in inviting interested women to workshops to create art on their own and also displays sculptures and paintings of artists all over Indonesia. The traditional buildings translocated to the garden are pieces of art on their own and an important part of the architectural heritage of Indonesia. In the way they are displayed and used the premises are a kind of open air museum providing an insight into different styles of the so called joglo type of buildings. In terms of building history they are of exceptional interest as they represent a building typology that is declining in the way as it is represented in Kartika’s place. Combined with the art it is hosting today it provides a particular interesting place to research the history of the buildings and the how they can be a suitable place for hosting artwork on canvas and paper. For the architectural part of the research a comprehensive recording of the building with an in-depth building archaeological research would be needed to unveil the origin of the buildings and how much they have been altered when re-erected at the place they are right now. For the works of art exhibited there, a survey of exhibition conditions is of substantial importance. Not only the physical conditions, but also the reception of the works of art is of great interest. To exhibit these particular works of art a particular reception of them was developed earlier and also the exhibition in the concrete environment fosters a distinct sort of reception. To understand the reception fully is one of the prerequisites of any conservation work, as presentation in a certain context is one of the fundamental tasks of conservation. Therefore the exhibition conditions in the joglo collection of Kartika should be studied in comprehensive way. As a side work so far found notes about the architecture and the works of art by Kartika and her family members are on paper and should be part of the conservation project, as they show severe damage such as ink corrosion, a fatal decay of a particular ink (iron gall ink), a work that will be accomplished by the cooperation partner at the Donau University Krems. The joglo collection of Kartika reflects a raising awareness about tradition and its manifestations and also the possibility to move traditional buildings and put them into a new context, which is a trend that is raising within Indonesia. You can find traditional houses of central Java (limasan) in Bali used as bungalows in touristic enterprises for providing the “traditional experience of Indonesia”. In this way the interdisciplinary research in Kartika’s estate can provide a new approach to research the interrelation between art and architecture but also between the tangible and intangible cultural heritage.
AFFANDI IIAffandi´s Art and Architecture as Part of the Tangible and Intangible Heritage of Indonesia(2017)Asea Uninet with Technical University ViennaTo preserve Affandi´s oeuvre, his oil paintings, his graphic art, his statues, his architectural artistic work and his ideas, a comprehensive approach must be chosen. The reason for such comprehensive approach is the manifold of material used by the artist, the tropical climate conditions, which make material decay fast and the social and political circumstances in the past and today. This approach includes the tangible and intangible aspects of the works of art and the environment in which they were presented and are used and kept. The recent project will include
- The memory cult concerning Affandi in his family and outside
- The history of the restoration of Affandi´s art
- The history of the museum Affandi
AFFANDIAsea Uninet with Technical University ViennaDevelopment of an integrated Restoration Concept for the Art and Architecture in the Affandi Museum Yogyakarta (2016)
Affandi is one of the most important contemporary Indonesian artists and his work is part of the outstanding cultural heritage of Indonesia. His work consists of paintings, drawings and sculptures, as well as the museum building which houses his works. The museum was planned and designed by the artist himself and is located in Yogyakarta downtown. The design of the building was inspired by the traditional vernacular architecture of Indonesia and can be considered as a piece of art itself. Construction work started in the 1960s and by now the buildings show signs of decay and need urgent restoration. The current state of the buildings already led to some damage of the artwork which are an important part of Indonesia’s contemporary cultural heritage. Inspired by the idea of Mr. Affandi’s daughter Kartika Affandi-Köberl, two universities in Austria propose to start a joint project with the Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta to develop a sustainable restoration and maintenance project for the Affandi museum. The first step of the project consist of three parts:
- The object will be documented with a comprehensive and detailed building archaeological survey. The integrated approach for the building survey that has been used at the TU Wien, Department History of Architecture and Building Archaeology, for years, can be applied for the building to document its structure, building materials and to map the damage. In cooperation with UGM this work can be done within the framework of a joint workshop of staff from Austria and staff and students from UGM
- In parallel to this work, Patricia Engel from the European Research Centre for Book and Paper Conservation-Restoration will (1) make a detailed survey of the drawings, (2) develop a conservation strategy for all paper based art by Affandi and (3) perform some of the conservation measures defined in the strategy. An introduction in the restoration techniques will be given as part of a workshop. Furthermore, the interior climate of the building will be analysed and the most suitable condition for a sustainable maintenance of the paintings suggested.
- A representative of the Department of Building Physics and Building Ecology of the TU Wien will analyse the building in cooperation with the team working on the building survey and the expert of restoration. Based on the detailed building archaeological survey mentioned above and on-site investigations the damage suffered by the building will be documented an analysed in detail. According to the requirements mapped by the conservation and restoration experts, indoor climatic conditions will be defined. Subsequently, a strategy for the restoration and optimization of the buildings will be developed, to provide the most suitable indoor climatic conditions for the artefacts.
- A detailed building survey of the Affandi Museum including
- a catalogue of plans and sections,
- a catalogue of rooms (Raumbuch) with details of the materials, and mapping of the damage.
- A strategy for restoring and conserving both drawings and paintings (watercolours).
- A documentation, restoration and maintenance strategy for the museum building. The challenge is to treat the building as a work of art in itself, while optimizing the indoor climatic conditions to protect the paintings from decay.
Stop FungiInnovationsscheck Nr. 5324706 Is an innovative development for an SME. In this case the question focused on mould attack in archives.
Book deacidification, mechanical strength enhancement and prevention of microbiological attack with supercritical CO2 or volatile organic solvents in combination with multifunctional hydrophobically modified nanoparticles and functional silanes.FFG – Österreichische Forschungsförderungs-Gesellschaft, Coin 5 ffg Projekt 3079125
The DEACIMIC project is aimed at preservation of archive materials, dealing with their acidity, deterioration of their mechanical properties and microbial degradation using the latest developments in cellulose chemistry and nanotechnology. Photo (from left): Christian Steindl (Berger), Peter Leerkamp (omni Access), Gerald Megens (Omni Access), Volker Ribitsch (Universität Graz), Eduard Paschinger (Entfeuchter), Martin Sova (Natex), Patricia Engel (Danube University Krems), Tamilselvan Mohan (Universität Graz), Franz Lang (Natex), Christine Grond (Danube University Krems), Gerhard Brandner (Entfeuchter), Christian Hanus (Danube University Krems). The DEACIMIC project is aimed at preservation of archive materials, dealing with their acidity, deterioration of their mechanical properties and microbial degradation using the latest developments in cellulose chemistry and nanotechnology. It will help develop a new paper deacidification process combining the best currently available concepts with knowledge in supercritical fluid / volatile organics solvent reactions and nanotechnology. The process will be transferred from the laboratory to the pilot scale, including construction of a process device and process optimization. The knowledge gained in Deacmic will overcome the currently existing gap in the Austrian book preservation field and substantially strengthen the position of the Austrian SMEs involved in the project on the European market.
- Institut für Chemie, Universität Graz
- Natex Prozesstechnologie GesmbH,
- Ferdinand Berger & Söhne GesmbH
- Danube University Krems, European Research Centre for Book and Paper Conservation-Restoration is the Leadpartner.
- Stift Zwettl
- Stift Kremsmünster
- Stift Seitenstetten
- Stift Vorau
- Archiv der Barmherzigen Schwestern Wien Gumpendorf
- Stift St. Florian
MEN & BOOKS - for a risk free use of the European written cultural heritage
EU Projekt, 522331-CU-1-2012-1-AT-Culture-Vol121Book and paper conservators and archivists all over Europe have a big common unsolved problem: mould. Mould destroys our cultural heritage. Especially books and charters in archives, being unique by nature and thus extremely valuable for our understanding of Europe´s past are very much at risk to be lost due to microorganisms: firstly because there are fungi that particularly attack and destroy paper and parchment; secondly, because archival material is stored en masse and is comparatively rarely moved – therefore infestation often stays undiscovered for a long time until it is so vast it cannot be overseen. Mouldy material is a serious health hazard for men, both archivists and readers, as most of the spores cause dangerous illnesses. Today many charters and books are still disinfected with toxic measures. This project seeks to find a solution to exterminate the mould with a substance and method that are harmless for men and books. This is beneficial for all European users of archival material.
The Archives of the Protestant Parish of the Holy Trinity in Swidnica houses about 12,000 manuscripts, prints, bound books and loose archival material. This archival material is complete without any losses from 1652 until today. These highly valuable sources for the history of Protestantism were chosen as a representative material. The material is certainly of interest for all European citizens who are interested in their history. From the material point the various writing materials, leathers, parchment and paper in this archive are found in almost any historic collection in Europe, promising significant results useful for any other institution in Europe and around the world.
This project cannot be realized in full without a substantial interdisciplinary, international dialogue. By combining art and culture, history and science and health topics, the project is clearly more than its parts. Please find a link to the official project website here.
Dr Patricia Engel, European Research Centre for Book and Paper Conservation-Restoration; Shirin Jacoby, Student; DI Isabel Peißl, Umweltbundesamt; Prof. Dr. Piotr Oszczanowski, University Wroc?aw; Sonja Stankowski, Swidnica (translator); Prof. Dr. Zdenek R. Nespor, University Prague; Bozena Pytel, Swidnica; Dr. Stephan Aderhold, Swidnica/Berlin; Prof. Dr. Katja Sterflinger-Gleixner, BOKU Vienna, (ANTRAGSTELLERIN); Dr. Anna Ziemlewska, Polnish Academy of Sciences, Vienna; Pastor Waldemar Pytel, Swidnica; Dr. Rene Eckhart, TU Graz; Caroline Maximoff, ICARUS; Dr. Elisabeth Umweltbundesamt Vienna.
Analyses of Armenian inks and papersPatricia Engel, Helmgard Holle, Manfred Schreiner, Wilfried Vetter, Emanuel Wenger
The research dealt with paper production in ancient Armenia. The wish to find measures against ink corrosion in Armenian manuscripts led to a closer survey of Armenian inks that was published earlier. Armenian paper, which is the second parameter in ink corrosion, is the theme of a publication to published soon. Visual observations, FT IR and XRF spectroscopy, fibre analyses, watermark survey and recreating paper surfaces after historical recipes were used in combination to understand what types of Armenian paper might support or hinder ink corrosion in Armenian manuscripts. The work was performed via a cooperation of the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the European Research Centre for Book and Paper Conservation-Restoration. Erasmus students from University of Zadar and the Matenadaran Yerevan were also involved.
Prof. Mag. Helmgard Holle demonstrates the procedure of fibre analysis for two ERASMUS students of the European Research Centre for Book and Paper Conservation-Restoration